Scaling land and water technologies in Tanzania: Opportunities, challenges and policy implications
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Mwongera, C.; Odhiambo Ageyo, C.; Kimani, P. (2020) Scaling land and water technologies in Tanzania: Opportunities, challenges and policy implications. Nairobi (Kenya): Alliance of Bioversity International and CIAT, 19 p.
Permanent link to cite or share this item: https://hdl.handle.net/10568/107773
The scaling of land and water technologies has widely increased across different parts of the world; and is recognized as important for ecological systems. These technologies contribute to sustainable management of watersheds on which agriculture, food production and rural livelihoods for most developing communities depend upon. There are ongoing efforts designed to halt land degradation in the Western Usambara which have arisen from pressure on land resources mainly caused by demographic growth, deforestation and the abandoning of the traditional regenerative land use and farming systems. Socio-cultural and economic factors such as education level, age, gender, and land tenure, marital status and income earnings of smallholder farmers are factors considered important in the adoption of land and water management practices. Environmental factors were also identified as limiting factors to smallholder farmers in soil-water management practices. Such factors involved physical distance, slope, type of crops grown and farm sizes. Insecure land tenure especially among women limits their adoption of the technologies. Technological complexity of the technology (farmers prefer technology that are less complex and easier to use), preference for less labor intensive technology, required capital, land ownership (less adoption in new technology on hired/leased land), approach of introducing the technology (preference of participatory bottom up approach), and motivation and the involvement of farmers from conceptualization to implementation are factors that impact adoption of technologies between farmers. Unsustainable cultivation in catchments and destruction of water sources in Tanzania is limiting the flow of water on which some of water use technologies directly depend. In some areas where farmers and pastoralists co-exist, conflicts always arise from grazing on farmland, with destruction to water infrastructure. In recognition of the need for sustainable management of land and water, and the increasing conflicts over use of resources by different sectors, Tanzania has enacted several policies. The irrigation policy calls for the improvement of irrigation water use efficiency and effectiveness by promoting closed conduit systems and high efficiency methods such as drip irrigation and promotion of efficient water utilization technologies such as the System of Rice Intensification. There is need for harmonization and linkage of land and water management and the policies to avoid conflicts. Whereas for example the customary land law recognizes the right to land entailing some resources therewith, the water law does not recognize such customary right by granting the ownership right to water by the owner of land on which the water resource is found. There is need for adequate mechanisms for enforcing policies, regulations and by-laws. Local water governance institutions such as water user associations are important for sustainable scaling of land and water technologies. Horizontal and vertical scaling of the land and water technologies depends on factors such as facilitation of registration of water user associations and empowering them; implementing projects based on actual ground conditions for ease of adoption by communities; and involvement of the local government. Strengthening linkages between relevant institutions and their respective roles and responsibilities also require to be clearly defined. Promotion of land and water technologies should not be gender-blind but rather ensure participation of women and youth in the training and implementation. An integrated systems approach is needed to address the multi-faceted challenges in sustainable land and water management, and a focus on the entire value chain activities; from input supply to output market.
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