Natural plant extracts for the in vitro culture of mucuna pruriens
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Jorge, A.; Hanson, J.; Gebremariam, G.; Proud, J. [Girma Gebremariam]. 2007. Natural plant extracts for the in vitro culture of mucuna pruriens. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS) 764:247-256.
Permanent link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10568/1958
Internet URL: http://www.actahort.org/books/764/764_33.htm
Mucuna is an important legume for livestock feed and is widely used as a cover crop. It is particularly difficult to grow in vitro owing to the production of phenolic compounds, which oxidize the growth media within a few days and prevent plant tissues to develop. Traditional tissue culture methods using basal nutrients (Murashige and Skoog and Gamborg-B5 salts), shoot inducing hormones (6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), Kinetin, 2-isopentenyladenine acid (2-iP) or Gibberelic acid) as well as vitamins, gave good induction of shoots from meristems, but slow shoot growth and plant regeneration. Recent reports proposed a simulation of the chemical composition of passion fruit and hazelnuts to growth the same plants in vitro. A much simpler and cheaper solution is proposed in this paper, using extracts of leaves as a basis for the nutrient media. Mucuna plants also contain phenolic compounds which were removed from the plant extract. Experiments were carried out to remove the phenolic components and adjust the concentration of plant extracts to produce a tissue culture media favourable for shoot growth and plant regeneration. Good in vitro growth of both callus and shoot tissues was obtained using low concentrations of either dry or fresh leaf extracts. There was a significant genotypic and physiological response to the media. Autoclaving the media rendered inactive the heat labile phenolics, thus eliminating the need for their removal from the extracts. Mucuna plants growing on plant extract medium grew better and lived longer than those on a traditional medium. This seems to be a promising alternative to traditional tissue culture media as well as a viable option to grow not only Mucuna, but other crops in vitro. It is a natural and easy method to apply, particularly in developing countries where budgets and access to modern technologies can be limited.