Evaluation of anthelmintic properties of extracts from some plants used as livestock dewormers by pastoralist and smallholder farmers in Kenya against Heligmosomoides polygyrus infections in mice
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Veterinary Parasitology;118(3-4): 215-226
Permanent link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10568/33232
Parasitic nematodes are among the most common and economically important infectious diseases of grazing livestock, especially in small ruminants in the tropics and subtropics in Kenya the control of gastrointestinal nematode infections in sheep and goats is usually made with synthetic anthelmintics but substantial levels of anthelmintic resistance have been recorded. A number of medicinal plants, that may provide possible alternatives, and are used by pastoralists and smallholder farmers in Kenya as deworming agents for their livestock and equines, namely Aframomum sanguineum, Dodonea angustifolia, Hildebrandtia sepalosa, Myrsine africana, Rapanea melanophloeos from Kenya, and Azadirachta indica from Kenya and Malaysia, together with the chemicals embelin and santonin that occur in some of these plants, were evaluated against Heligmosomoides polygyrus in mice. Commercial anthelmintics, namely ivermectin, pyrantel and piperazine, were also investigated, both to validate the mouse model system and to assess efficacy of these drugs against H. polygyrus. Pyrantel and ivermectin were highly effective in reducing the numbers of H. polygyrus worms as well as eggs in faeces of the mice, but piperazine had a lower activity. Application of santonin and M. africana significantly reduced the number of total worm counts (TWC) but not faecal egg counts (FEC). The use of embelin, R. melanophloeos and A. indica reduced FEC but not TWC. In all cases, however, reductions were well below the a priori level of 70% required for biological significance. A. sanguineum, D. angustifolia and H. sepalosa had no effect on either TWC or FEC. In conclusion, none of the plant preparations had any biologically significant anthelmintic effect in this monogastric host-parasite model system.