Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce root-knot nematode penetration through altered root exudation of their host
MetadataShow full item record
Vos, C.; Claerhout, S.; Mkandawire, R.; Panis, B.; De Waele, D.; Elsen, A. -2012-Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce root-knot nematode penetration through altered root exudation of their host-Plant and Soil 354 (1-2)-p. 335-345
Permanent link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10568/35836
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can control root-knot nematode infection, but the mode of action is still unknown. We investigated the effects of AMF and mycorrhizal root exudates on the initial steps of Meloidogyne incognita infection, namely movement towards and penetration of tomato roots. Methods M. incognita soil migration and root penetration were evaluated in a twin-chamber set-up consisting of a control and mycorrhizal (Glomus mosseae) plant compartment (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Marmande) connected by a bridge. Penetration into control and mycorrhizal roots was also assessed when non-mycorrhizal or mycorrhizal root exudates were applied and nematode motility in the presence of the root exudates was tested in vitro. Results M. incognita penetration was significantly reduced in mycorrhizal roots compared to control roots. In the twin-chamber set-up, equal numbers of nematodes moved to both compartments, but the majority accumulated in the soil of the mycorrhizal plant compartment, while for the control plants the majority penetrated the roots. Application of mycorrhizal root exudates further reduced nematode penetration in mycorrhizal plants and temporarily paralyzed nematodes, compared with application of water or non-mycorrhizal root exudates. Conclusions Nematode penetration was reduced in mycorrhizal tomato roots and mycorrhizal root exudates probably contributed at least partially by affecting nematode motility.