Complete sequences of mitochondria genomes of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and comparative analysis of mitochondrial DNA fragments inserted in the nuclear genomes
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Behura, S.K., Lobo, N.F. Haas, B., Bruyn, B. de, Lovin, D.D., Shumway, M.F., Puiu, D., Romero-Severson, J., Nene, V. and Severson, D.W. 2011. Complete sequences of mitochondria genomes of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and comparative analysis of mitochondrial DNA fragments inserted in the nuclear genomes. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 41(10):770-777.
Permanent link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10568/3789
We present complete sequences of the mitochondrial genomes for two important mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, that are major vectors of dengue virus and lymphatic filariasis, respectively. The A. aegypti mitochondrial genome is 16,655 bp in length and that of Culex quinquefasciatus is 15,587 bp, yet both contain 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, one 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene, one 16S rRNA gene and a control region (CR) in the same order. The difference in the genome size is due to the difference in the length of the control region. We also analyzed insertions of nuclear copies of mtDNA-like sequences (NUMTs) in a comparative manner between the two mosquitoes. The NUMT sequences occupy ˜0.008% of the A. aegypti genome and ˜ 0.001% of the C. quinquefasciatus genome. Several NUMTs were found localized in the introns of predicted protein coding genes in both genomes (32 genes in A. aegypti but only four in C. quinquefasciatus). None of these NUMT-containing genes had an ortholog between the two species or had paralogous copies within a genome that was also NUMT-containing. It was further observed that the NUMT-containing genes were relatively longer but had lower GC content compared to the NUMT-less paralogous copies. Moreover, stretches of homologies are present among the genic and non-genic NUMTs that may play important roles in genomic rearrangement of NUMTs in these genomes. Our study provides new insights on understanding the roles of nuclear mtDNA sequences in genome complexities of these mosquitoes.