Use of untreated wastewater in peri-urban agriculture in Pakistan: risks and opportunities
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Ensink, J. H. J.; van der Hoek, W.; Matsuno, Y.; Munir, S.; Aslam, M. R. 2002. Use of untreated wastewater in peri-urban agriculture in Pakistan: risks and opportunities. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). v, 22p. (IWMI Research Report 064) doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3910/2009.069
Permanent link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10568/39851
The practice of using untreated wastewater for irrigation is widespread but has been largely ignored because the norm has always been that wastewater should be treated before use. Increasing water scarcity, lack of money for treatment and a clear willingness by farmers to use untreated wastewater have led to an uncontrolled expansion of wastewater use. It is therefore important to better document the practice of irrigation with untreated wastewater in order to find out how it can be improved within the financial possibilities of very low-income countries.
SubjectsWATER REUSE; WASTEWATER; WATER QUALITY; GROUNDWATER; IRRIGATION PRACTICES; SOIL PROPERTIES; ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS; CONJUNCTIVE USE;
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