Leptospira seroprevalence in human and associated factors in Yen Dinh district and Nhu Thanh district, Thanh Hoa province, Vietnam, 2013
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Cong Ngoc Long. 2014. Leptospira seroprevalence in human and associated factors in Yen Dinh district and Nhu Thanh district, Thanh Hoa province, Vietnam, 2013. MSc thesis. Hanoi, Vietnam: Hanoi School of Public Health.
Permanent link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10568/41579
Leptospirosis is a zoonosis that spreads worldwide and causes major problem for human and animal health due to the complexity of transmission pathway and difficulties in diagnosis. The disease is more prevalent in tropical regions where animal management and climate favours the transmission and survival of the bacteria in the environment such as in Thanh Hoa province, North of Vietnam. This research aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of human leptospirosis and risk factors associated with occupation in Thanh Hoa province, Viet Nam in 2013. Blood samples were taken randomly from 300 people living in 2 districts Yen Dinh and Nhu Thanh in Thanh Hoa to get serum samples for Leptospira test. The research used the Leptospira immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IgG ELISA) method to diagnose leptospirosis in the area. An epidemiological survey was also conducted in 8 clusters representing 300 people randomly selected and aged 18-60 years. Sex, age, occupation, contact with animals, type of water supply, and individual habits were recorded. 147 sera (49%) gave positive results, suggesting recent infection. No significant difference was found between females and males and among group of education levels. The distribution of seroprevalence was homogeneous throughout the population studied, with the exception of the 50-60 years age group, in which leptospiral antibodies were more frequent. Three high risk occupations were found: slaughter work, animal care giver and farmer with significant link between leptospiral seropositivity and professional activities. This indicates that leptospirosis in Thanh Hoa may be considered as an occupational linked disease. People doing slaughter work are likely most at risk of leptospirosis with positive rate 7.9 times higher than low risk group (p<0.001); animal care givers with positive rate 4.4 times higher than low risk group including shop owner, merchant, food seller (p=0.001); farmer with positive rate 2.7 times higher than low risk group (p=0.04). Our findings demonstrate high level of circulation of leptospires and the potential importance of leptospiral infections among the rural population in this area. They also identify groups of people and professions at high risk to be prioritized for risk mitigation measures with a more integrated approach such as One Health.