Improving climate risk management at local level techniques, case studies, good practices and guidelines for World Meteorological Organization members
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Martínez R, Hemming D, Malone L, Bermudez N, Cockfield G, Diongue A, Hansen J, Hildebrand A, Ingram K, Jakeman G, Kadi M, McGregor GR, Mushtaq S, Rao P, Pulwarty R, Ndiaye O, Srinivasan G, Seck E, White N, Zougmore R. 2012. Improving climate risk management at local level techniques, case studies, good practices and guidelines for World Meteorological Organization members. In: Banaitiene N, ed. Risk management current issues and challenges. New York, USA: InTech. p 477-532.
Climate can be viewed in a number of ways. As a constraint or setting, climate provides the broad boundary conditions within which a range of ecosystems services function. Climate may be considered a determinant in that it may be part of a causal chain of direct or indirect events leading to a particular impact or outcome. Climate can also be viewed as a resource; this notion implies that climate has a value, could be managed and manipulated and by extension could be allocated. More often than not, climate is viewed as a hazard. Whichever of these views of climate is adopted, it is clear that climate has a close relationship with nature and society and therefore climate variability and change may pose a range of risks for environments, societies and economies.