Don't kill the spider
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CTA. 1987. Don't kill the spider. Spore 9. CTA, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Permanent link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10568/44662
Helpful insects. spiders and pathogens Friends of the rice farmer / Shepard, B.M. et al.. (1987). Integrated Pest Management Foundation, International Rice Research Institute, Manila. Philippines 127 pp.
As a result of more than ten years of experience with integrated pest management (IPM), the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) has published a booklet on helpful spiders, other insects and pathogens. The main goal of IRRl's IPM activities is to encourage the use of biological pest control to maintain high yields and maximize farm profits, while avoiding ecologically disruptive chemical pesticides. Insects have natural enemies which can be used to control pests, especially in places where the use of broad-spectrum pesticides has been avoided. This booklet identifies such species for rice crops and classifies them as predators, parasites or diseases. Predators are often the most important group as far as rice is concerned, occurring in almost every area where rice Is grown. Some of them, such as certain spiders and carabid beetles, search the plants for prey such as leafhoppers, moths and larvas. Spiders prefer moving prey, while many beetles prefer insect eggs. Parasites are generally more host specific than predators and can find their hosts even at low densities. Mass rearing of parasites for release in rice fields is useful in certain situations but often too expensive. Various insect diseases can also be used to infect and kill rice pests. The major groups are fungi, viruses and bacteria but nematodes and some other micro-organisms have also been found to be effective. Such diseases can be mass produced at a low cost and used like an ordinary insecticide. This booklet is a useful guide with 103 color plates and illustrations that help farmers and extension workers identify 'friendly insects'. Shepard, B.M. et al.. (1987). 'Helpful insects. spiders and pathogens Friends of the rice farmer Integrated Pest Management Foundation, International Rice Research Institute, Manila. Philippines 127 pp.