Organic technologies from the Philippines
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CTA. 1992. Organic technologies from the Philippines . Spore 40. CTA, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
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Rapid composting and the use of compost as fertilizer Using Azospirillum for maize production Sesbania rostrata as a source of fertilizer for maize The Executive Director Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Res
Trials have been conducted in the Philippines to find ways of improving crop yields through the use of organic fertilizers. The following are reports based on the results of three of the experiments. Rapid composting and the use of compost as fertilizer Researchers in the Philippines tested, in rice fields, composts generated from Trichoderma. They found that the treatment increased yields of rice, and reduced the need for chemical fertilizers. Crop residues were thoroughly wetted, any woody parts were chopped and everything was piled loosely into a compost pen or raised platform. One or two handfuls of activator were broadcast on each 10-15cm thick layer of rice straw, animal manure and Leucaena leucocephala. The compost pile was then covered with plastic sacks, banana or coconut leaves. The pile was moistened periodically and turned at least once, particularly when there were woody substrates. After 3-5 weeks the compost was already ripe, with a low temperature in an layers the substrates were brown to black and soily. A half-rate dose of inorganic fertilizer was applied as a side-dressing. At the end of the trial year, yield increases were up to 16%. Using Azospirillum for maize production Azospirillum bacteria isolated from the roots of talahib grass can supplement the nitrogen fertilizer requirement of maize. Before planting, maize seeds were inoculated with Azospirillum and then sown at a distance of 25m between hills in ground that had been ploughed, harrowed and had basal fertilizer applied to it. The plants were then hand-weeded, thinned, sprayed with pesticide and side-dressed with fertilizer. Azospirillum-inoculated maize plants were found consistently to grow taller and greener compared to uninoculated plants. yields were also higher than uninoculated plants and responded favourably to different fertilizer levels. Inoculated maize fertilized with 30-0-0 NPK gave the highest return on investment (142%). Response of maize to the inoculant was affected by the inoculant concentration, type and fertility of the soil and the season. The inoculant was effective if roots were colonized with 100,000 to 1,000,000 cells of Azospirillum per plant but was less effective in clayey soils or soils with a high organic matter content. Soil subjected to either very low or very high fertilization rates also caused the inoculant to be less effective. Sesbania rostrata as a source of fertilizer for maize Research has shown that sowing Sesbania rostrata at a seeding rate of 45kg/ha can supplement 75% of the nitrogen requirement of maize after the third cropping. S. rostrata seeds were first soaked in concentrated sulphuric acid for 20 minutes then drilled at 45kg/ha into furrows 50cm apart. As soon as the Sesbania started to flower it was ploughed under. Maize was then planted in furrows 75cm apart with one seed per hill at 25cm intervals. After 25-30 days a side-dressing of 25% total N (urea) was applied. Results showed that green manuring with S.rostrata increased organic matter content and nitrogen mobilization of phosphorus, improved rnicrobiological and physical properties of the soil and had the potential to accumulate nitrogen and substitute for it as a fertilizer as well as to increase yield. The Executive Director Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCAARD) Los Banos, Laguna, THE PHILIPPINES
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