Blotches on the sunflower
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CTA. 2002. Blotches on the sunflower. Spore 99. CTA, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Permanent link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10568/47548
Internet URL: http://spore.cta.int/images/stories/pdf/old/spore99.pdf
Late in 2001, the Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa reported a new viral disease in sunflowers, found in Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania and Zambia, causing leaves to crinkle and in cases of severe...
Late in 2001, the Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa reported a new viral disease in sunflowers, found in Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania and Zambia, causing leaves to crinkle and in cases of severe infection over 70% smaller heads. The virus is tentatively placed in the genus Umbravirus and is found mainly on improved hybrids. This new threat comes at a bad time for sunflower cultivation which has been booming in recent years in many ACP countries. On domestic and international markets, demand is increasing for cooking oil, most notably oil from sunflowers (Helianthus annuus). Twenty years ago, most ACP countries imported more than 60% of edible oils for consumption, and sunflower oil has played a large role in cutting this back. Edible oils are an essential part of a balanced diet and help to absorb vitamins and proteins. Traditionally, intake of fats in sub-Saharan Africa is among the lowest in the world. Over the last two decades, instead of relying on relatively expensive commercially available oils, home-made or locally produced edible oil has been promoted as a cheap and healthy alternative in the rural areas. Now, of the 15 million hectares of sunflowers cultivated worldwide, half a million hectares are in Africa. Part of the sunflower success story in Africa comes from the successful replication of a small manual ram press developed and introduced in the mid-1980s by Appropriate Technology International. ATI, incidentally, has been remodelled as an organisation and is now known as EnterpriseWorks, with regional offices in all ACP regions. Originally known as the Bielenberg press, it now has many variants and is being manufactured locally in much of Africa, called RAMCO in southern Africa, and RAM32 in Uganda, for example. Different types are sold at a prices ranging from t100 to t300. The press can process both sunflower and sesame seeds With a yield from 50 kg of sunflower seeds of 10 litres of oil, the press is also manufactured and used, in Senegal, for sesame seeds. EnterpriseWorks Worldwide 1828 L Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20036, USA Fax: +1 202 2934598 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.enterpriseworks.org