Detoxifying Canavalia seeds
MetadataShow full item record
CTA. 1997. Detoxifying Canavalia seeds. Spore 72. CTA, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Permanent link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10568/48919
Internet URL: http://spore.cta.int/images/stories/pdf/old/spore72.pdf
One of the serious problems facing most tropical developing countries is how food production can keep pace with rapidly rising populations and provide feed for livestock without resorting to expensive imports. There is a constant quest for improving...
One of the serious problems facing most tropical developing countries is how food production can keep pace with rapidly rising populations and provide feed for livestock without resorting to expensive imports. There is a constant quest for improving current popular crops and finding ways of exploiting under-utilized ones. The genus Canavalia comprises a small group of some 48 species, which are distributed through the tropics. These are vigorous, exceptionally productive, large-seeded tropical legumes, which originally grew in the drought-ridden regions of Arizona and Mexico and were utilized as high protein food and forage plants by the indigenous peoples. Among the genus, Canavalia ensiformis (jackbean) is considered to be the species with the highest potential as an economic crop due to its excellent agronomic characteristics. Its excellent germination and rigorous initial growth make establishment relatively easy and, under optimal agronomic management conditions, total yields of forage from jackbean can reach up to 10 tonnes of DM/ha. Dry seed yields of 2.5 t/ha have been reported in Zimbabwe and Nigeria as well as other areas outside Africa. Canavalia seeds contain about 300g crude protein and 600g carbohydrate/kg dry matter. However, they possess toxic and antinutritional factors unless treated, and a variety of trials have been conducted to find ways of eliminating these factors from the seeds. The best method was found to be to crack the seed, then cook for 1 hour or pressure cook for 15 minutes before drying and milling. This latter approach allows the process to be completed within a day. However, where means of cracking the seed were not available, soaking the seed for 72 hours prior to cooking for 1 hour or pressure cooking for 15 minutes was the best alternative. Professor A B I Udedibie Department of Animal Production Federal University of Technology PMB 1526 Owerri NIGERIA