Livestock development and pasture potential in the Sudan
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CTA. 1993. Livestock development and pasture potential in the Sudan . Spore 46. CTA, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Permanent link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10568/49182
One of the great goals of CTA is to bring together dispersed information and knowledge and to make it available to a large number of users. This is particularly important when dealing with the problems caused by the drought in the Sahel, which is why CTA published the first livestock atlas covering all the arid areas of the Sudan. CTA entrusted the task to CIRAD-EMVT which, since 1958, has mapped over 2.0m km2 of the Sahel. French, British and Sudanese scientists pulled together their efforts in order to publish this atlas, which incorporates extensive data on livestock and their development. The atlas is a synthesis of livestock and pasture potential of the regions of the Sudan where rainfall averages between 70 and 500mm per annum. The publication responds to a perceived need for this kind of information among national research services and decision-makers, as well as among international development and aid agencies. The atlas contains comprehensive information on animal-rearing and its development in a region where climatic conditions play a paramount role. It is a follow-up of a survey carried out, in French and under the sponsorship of CTA, of seven West African countries situated in dry tropical zones. It is part of a series which includes a compilation of the common climatic elements for an animal-rearing area spreading from the Atlantic to the Ethiopian border. The Sudan atlas covers twelve subjects which highlight two main themes. The first is a study of the environment and comprises the following topics: general presentation, phyto-geography and botany, climate and soils, feed resources, range use, cropping, water resources, pastoral production and economy and livestock movements. The second part deals with human activity, livestock resources, animal health and veterinary services. The study covers more than 800,000 km2. The atlas also contains an agro-pastoral map at 1 :500,000, in twelve sheets. The publication will provide planners with a reliable information source and agricultural authorities with an important tool for monitoring natural resources. Furthermore, this work helps to identify the information gaps that still need to be explored. Sudan, with an area of more than 2.5m km2 is Africa's largest country. Its population has increased rapidly during the last 20 years. From 15 million inhabitants in 1970, it has grown to an estimated 27.3 million today. Sudan controls only the middle section of the Nile but this river dictates the country's present and future patterns of land use and provides 96% of the annual surface run-off (estimated at 136.5 cubic km). The Sudanese economy is based primarily on agriculture and pastoralism. Together these contribute 35% of GNP and employs 70% of the labour force. Most of the livestock are raised under nomadic or semi-nomadic conditions but these herds men are gradually becoming settled and are increasingly turning to cultivation. The atlas contains 33 pages, of which 12 are devoted to a cartographical survey. It features the orohydrography of the region an essential data on climate, population distribution and economic factors. It includes two maps of the vegetation of Sudan, one based on the classification made by Harrison and Jackson in 1958 and the other made by IEMVT in 1986-1987. The use of aerial photography from the Landsat satellite complements this information. The atlas has been produced by the department of Livestock Production and Veterinary Medicine of the French-based Centre for International Cooperation in Agricultural Development Research (CIRAD-EMVT), in collaboration with the Range Pasture Administration of the Sudan. The section on water resources was produced by the Geological and Mining Research Bureau (BRGM). Several institutions have provided assistance to CIRAD-EMVT in the production of the atlas: in the United Kingdom the Natural Resources Institute (NRI), Overseas Development Administration (ODA), Durham University and Bangor University; in the Republic of Sudan, the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural and Animal Resources, the Forestry Department, and the Rural Water Department. The authors were A Durag, (DVM, Director, Range Pasture Administration) F El Moulah (Range Scientist, Range Pasture Administration), G. Forgiarini (Remote Sensing Specialist, CIRAD-EMVT), H I Khatab (DVM, Ministry of Agriculture and Natural and Animal Resources), G Lamarque (Cartographer, CIRAD-EMVT), M El Sammani (Socio-Economist, University of Khartoum), G Tacher (Director, CIRAD-EMVT), H Torrent (Hydrogeologist, BRGM) and G Uilenberg (Scientific Director - Animal Health, CIRAD-EMVT). The scientific editors were J C Bille (Range Ecologist) and R T Wilson (Animal Scientist/Natural Resources Ecologist). The technical production was carried out at CIRAD-EMVT. CTA provided financial support because of its mandate to disseminate scientific and technical information in order to aid the formulation of development strategies by ACP countries. The socio-economic importance of pastoralism in the Sudan, and the need to protect an exceptionally fragile ecosystem, were additional factors which led CTA to support this publication.