Role of women in value-chain systems of vegetables and spices in Atsbi Wemberta Woreda, Eastern Zone of Tigray
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Gebremichael, A. Mekelle University, Tigray (Ethiopia). 2009. Role of women in value-chain systems of vegetables and spices in Atsbi Wemberta Woreda, Eastern Zone of Tigray. MSc thesis (Rural Development). 109p. Tigray (Ethiopia): Mekelle University.
Permanent link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10568/622
In Atsbi-Wemberta woreda, intensive interventions have been introduced and successfully applied in the value chains of vegetables and spices benefiting over 10,000 households who produce vegetables and spices on about 1,400 ha in 2007. In these interventions, women's participation, role and benefits shared in the value chains have not been reported. Thus the study was conducted to assess the role and benefits of women, associated constraints and suggest possible intervention in the value chains of vegetables and spices. Accordingly data was collected from individual interviews (108 interviewees) using semistructured questionnaires from five tabias drawn from beneficiary and non-beneficiary FHHs and MHHs. In each tabia, women and men farmers separate group discussions were conducted to generate further information. Each group consists of 8 farmers equally drawn from beneficiary and non-beneficiary households. The collected information was re-enforced through further group discussions with tabia administrators and DAs. The information collected from five tabias was cross checked at woreda level group discussion consists of experts from Offices of Agriculture and Rural development, Women's Affairs and Women's Association. Market related group discussions were also held with women vegetables and spices retailers in Atsbi, Haike Meshal and Habes market places separately. The result indicated that there was no significant difference in land ownership and quality between beneficiary FHHs and MHHs. On the other hand, MHHs had better access to sharecrop/rented in land (43%) than FHHs (8%). With regard to level of participation, about 29 % of the beneficiary households were FHHs covering about 24% of the land covered by vegetables and spices in 2007. Moreover, about 80% of the vegetables and spices retailers were women and 100% of wholesalers were men. Women involved in all activities along the value chain of vegetables and spices except in plowing. Aggregately, FHHs' role was (50-90%) whereas the role of women in MHHs (10-70%). There was a significant increase in women workload (FHHs and women in MHHs) due to their participation in the value chains. FHHs commands about 90% of the decision which was much higher than that of women in MHHs (25%) on what, when and how to produce vegetables and spices. Besides, the decision making power of FHHs on the income incurred from vegetables and spices was significantly higher (95%) than women in MHHs (20%). Moreover, the overall decision making power of women in the beneficiary households was significantly higher than the women in non-beneficiary households. There was no difference in the type of information dissemination mechanisms, extension service provision, credit access and input supply between beneficiary FHHs and MHHs but differences did exist in the frequency of DAs contact and training. Beneficiary MHHs incurred more annual income than FHHs. The proportion of households with saving culture between FHHs and MHHs was almost similar except in the amount of money saved. In terms of wealth status, beneficiary households were much wealthier than non-beneficiary households. The majority of the beneficiary FHHs were grouped as medium (65%) and very few as rich (7%). Similarly, the majority of the beneficiaries MHHs were grouped as medium (64%) and about 26% were rich. This indicates that FHHs are beneficiaries in the value-chain of vegetables and spices but the income benefited was below that of the MHHs. The reason for the disparity in income is due to the low level of investment in input and efficiency and in productivity and marketing of FHHs on vegetables and spices compared to that of MHHs. This requires further empowerment in capacity and uptake of knowledge to improve the productivity and marketing of vegetables and spices. Women in MHHs showed low level of decision making power than FHHs and thus facilitating their involvement in spices, seedling and retailing of vegetables and spices could make them competent enough economically.