Assessment of problems/constraints associated with artificial insemination service in Ethiopia
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Gebremedhin, D.G. Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia). 2008. Assessment of problems/constraints associated with artificial insemination service in Ethiopia. MSc thesis (Tropical Animal Health and Production). 110p. Addis Ababa (Ethiopia): Addis Ababa University.
Permanent link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10568/711
Study on reproductive performance of 18 AI bulls and on the efficiency of AI operations was conducted at the National Artificial Insemination Center and in ten purposively selected areas of five regional states. This study was also conducted to assess the problems and constraints associated with artificial insemination service in Ethiopia. The 18 bulls were owned by NAIC and were in semen production. Questionnaire survey was also carried out on technical staffs that were performing their duties at the National AI Center. Evaluation of number of services per conception and conception rates to first insemination was carried out. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed on 375 cows in the selected areas. Besides, 114 straws of semen, 61 from regions, and the other 53 from NAIC were checked for semen motility to see if there were any differences in motility due to handling between the center and the regions. Thirty AI technicians and 246 farmers were used for the collection of data using questionnaire surveys. Moreover, fifty-two high-level professionals who have stakes directly or indirectly in the artificial insemination service have been used for the focus group discussions in the five regions. Mean (± E) scrotal circumference for Holstein, Jersey and crosses of Holstein with indigenous breeds at NAIC was 39.71± 0.64, 41.00 ± 1.16 and 39.00 ±1.00 respectively. The results did not differ (p>0.05) among the three breeds. Similarly, the outcome of semen physio-morphological analysis revealed that there was no difference (P>0.05) for the different semen characteristics except for the total morphological defects which differed significantly (P<0.05) among the three breeds. The sources, the selection procedures, and the health status of the AI bulls at NAIC were found to have serious problems. Mean (± SE) number of services per conception and conception rate to first insemination were 1.88 ± 0.07 and 27.06 ± 0.44 respectively. These results differ significantly (P<0.001) among the five regions. Of the total cows used during the study, 40.53% have been found to be repeat breeders. Mean (± SE) semen motility for the NAIC and for the regions were 53.2% and 51.7% respectively and there was no difference (P>0.05) between the NAIC and the regions. The overall results of the assessment via questionnaire surveys and focus group discussions at large have indicated that artificial insemination is not doing well in all the regions and at national level at large. It is inferred, therefore, that artificial insemination operation in Ethiopia is not a success and requires urgent measures to change the situation before it totally collapses.