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dc.contributor.authorThu Le-Thien_US
dc.contributor.authorPhuc Pham Ducen_US
dc.contributor.authorZurbrugg, C.en_US
dc.contributor.authorToan Luu-Quocen_US
dc.contributor.authorHuong Nguyen-Maien_US
dc.contributor.authorTu Vu-Vanen_US
dc.contributor.authorHung Nguyen-Vieten_US
dc.titleDiarrhea risks by exposure to livestock waste in Vietnam using quantitative microbial risk assessmenten_US
cg.authorship.typesCGIAR and developing country instituteen_US
cg.authorship.typesCGIAR and advanced research instituteen_US
dcterms.abstractObjectives The aim of this paper was to assess the diarrhea risks caused by various pathogens among those exposed to biogas wastewater through different activities. Methods Application of quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) of biogas wastewater was conducted in Hanam Province, Vietnam. A total of 451 representatives from households that use biogas were interviewed about their practices of handling biogas plant and reuse of biogas effluent for irrigation. In addition, 150 samples of biogas wastewater were analyzed for Escherichia coli, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Giardia lamblia. Risk characterization was calculated using Monte Carlo simulation. Results The annual diarrhea risk caused by exposure to biogas effluent through irrigation activities ranged from 17.4 to 21.1% (E. coli O157:H7), 1.0 to 2.3% (G. lamblia), and 0.2 to 0.5% (C. parvum), while those caused through unblocking drains connected to biogas effluent tanks were 22.0% (E. coli), 0.7% (G. lamblia), and 0.5% (C. parvum). Conclusions Further measures are needed to reduce the risk by either improving the microbial quality of biogas effluent or by ensuring the use of personal protective measures when exposed to biogas wastewater.en_US
dcterms.accessRightsLimited Accessen_US
dcterms.bibliographicCitationThu Le-Thi, Phuc Pham-Duc, Zurbrügg, C., Toan Luu-Quoc, Huong Nguyen-Mai, Tu Vu-Van and Hung Nguyen-Viet. 2017. Diarrhea risks by exposure to livestock waste in Vietnam using quantitative microbial risk assessment. International Journal of Public Health 62(Supplement 1): 83–91.en_US
dcterms.extentp. 83-91en_US
dcterms.typeJournal Articleen_US
cg.contributor.affiliationHanoi School of Public Healthen_US
cg.contributor.affiliationSwiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technologyen_US
cg.contributor.affiliationInternational Livestock Research Instituteen_US
cg.isijournalISI Journalen_US
cg.coverage.regionSouth-eastern Asiaen_US
cg.contributor.crpAgriculture for Nutrition and Healthen_US
cg.creator.identifierHung Nguyen-Viet: 0000-0003-1549-2733en_US
cg.contributor.donorInternational Development Research Centreen_US
cg.reviewStatusPeer Reviewen_US
cg.howPublishedFormally Publisheden_US
cg.journalInternational Journal of Public Healthen_US

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