Physical water scarcity metrics for monitoring progress towards SDG target 6.4: An evaluation of indicator 6.4.2 “Level of water stress”
Review statusPeer Review
MetadataShow full item record
Vanham, D.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Wada, Y.; Bouraoui, F.; de Roo, A.; Mekonnen, M. M.; van de Bund, W. J.; Batelaan, O.; Pavelic, Paul; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Kummu, M.; Rockstrom, J.; Liu, J.; Bisselink, B.; Ronco, P.; Pistocchi, A.; Bidoglio, G. 2017. Physical water scarcity metrics for monitoring progress towards SDG target 6.4: An evaluation of indicator 6.4.2 “Level of water stress” Science of the Total Environment, 15p. (Online first). doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.056
Permanent link to cite or share this item: https://hdl.handle.net/10568/89277
External link to download this item: http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0048969717323963/1-s2.0-S0048969717323963-main.pdf?_tid=3378446e-9d11-11e7-b615-00000aacb35d&acdnat=1505808466_dde7280ef636e5416ef242c37fd997c5
Target 6.4 of the recently adopted Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) deals with the reduction of water scarcity. To monitor progress towards this target, two indicators are used: Indicator 6.4.1 measuring water use efficiency and 6.4.2 measuring the level of water stress (WS). This paper aims to identify whether the currently proposed indicator 6.4.2 considers the different elements that need to be accounted for in a WS indicator. WS indicators compare water use with water availability. We identify seven essential elements: 1) both gross and net water abstraction (or withdrawal) provide important information to understand WS; 2) WS indicators need to incorporate environmental flow requirements (EFR); 3) temporal and 4) spatial disaggregation is required in a WS assessment; 5) both renewable surface water and groundwater resources, including their interaction, need to be accounted for as renewable water availability; 6) alternative available water resources need to be accounted for as well, like fossil groundwater and desalinated water; 7) WS indicators need to account for water storage in reservoirs, water recycling and managed aquifer recharge. Indicator 6.4.2 considers many of these elements, but there is need for improvement. It is recommended that WS is measured based on net abstraction as well, in addition to currently only measuring WS based on gross abstraction. It does incorporate EFR. Temporal and spatial disaggregation is indeed defined as a goal in more advanced monitoring levels, in which it is also called for a differentiation between surface and groundwater resources. However, regarding element 6 and 7 there are some shortcomings for which we provide recommendations. In addition, indicator 6.4.2 is only one indicator, which monitors blue WS, but does not give information on green or green-blue water scarcity or on water quality. Within the SDG indicator framework, some of these topics are covered with other indicators.
- IWMI Journal Articles 
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Title:National Water Conference on Status and Future Directions of Water Research in Sri Lanka, BMICH, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 4-6 November 1998. Session 4: Participatory management of irrigation; Session 5: Water resource data; Session 6: Managing water quality Date:1998Type:Conference ProceedingsStatus:Open Access
Title:Managing the business: potential and pitfalls of water rights and water tariffs in allocating and managing water in water stressed basins: the case of Rufiji Basin in Tanzania Date:2005Type:Conference PaperStatus:Open Access
Title:Water security for food security: findings of the Comprehensive Assessment for Sub-Saharan Africa. [This report draws directly from the book Water for food, water for life: a Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture]. Authors:Molden, David J.Date:2008Type:Conference PaperStatus:Open Access