Concepts and practices in agricultural extension in developing countries: a source book
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Anandajayasekeram, P.; Puskur, R.; Workneh, S.; Hoekstra, D. 2008. Concepts and practices in agricultural extension in developing countries: a source book. Nairobi (Kenya): ILRI.
Permanent link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10568/99
The first chapter outlines the emerging challenges faced by agricultural R&D sectors and how paradigms are evolving in response to these changes and challenges. The second chapter traces the evolution of agricultural extension thinking and practice. It highlights some generic problems faced at various stages of evolution and approaches to address them. It highlights the factors identified in literature as contributing to successful knowledge dissemination processes and creating higher access to clients to the services. While reflecting on the challenges and opportunities, the chapter also explores the possible future of extension services in developing countries. The third chapter gives an account of the various extension models, approaches and methods that have been tried out in developing countries and the experiences. The chapter concludes with the transition being made to agricultural innovation systems from Research & Extension systems and highlights the role of extension services in this context. Chapter four highlights the importance of farmer groups in providing effective extension services and promoting innovation. It explains in detail the processes, approaches and methods involved in group formation and development, management, performance assessment and, monitoring and evaluation. Chapter five lists and describes in detail the various tools and methods used in participatory research and development processes. Chapter six focuses on the very important issues of Monitoring and Evaluation as systems for learning and for facilitating reflective action cycles. The importance of participatory approaches in M&E, process monitoring and outcome mapping are highlighted. This book can be used by students and practitioners of extension, researchers and decision-makers. This is a collation of knowledge regarding the practice of extension and is not intended to be used as a recipe or blue print. Based on the context and the requirement, the approaches and tools should be selected, adapted and used. There is a built-in flexibility that would allow the user to employ his/her experience, creativity and imagination in adapting and using the approaches and tools described in this source book.