ILRI sustainable livestock systems program outputs

Permanent URI for this collectionhttps://hdl.handle.net/10568/79347

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    Participatory rangeland management: Guidelines for practitioners
    (Manual, 2024-06-01) IGAD Centre for Pastoral Areas and Livestock Development
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    Institutional Capacity Assessment for Community Rangeland Management Institutions in Pastoral Areas of Ethiopia
    (Report, 2024-04-30) Eba, Bedasa; Flintan, Fiona E.; Iya, Golicha; Abdi, Hamse; Said, Mohammed
    The International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), in partnership with African Medical and Research Foundation (Amref) and Veterinaires Sans Frontiere (VSF) Suisse, are jointly implementing HEAL (One Health for Humans, Environment, Animals and Livelihood in parts of Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia. ILRI is implementing the rangeland health component. The target is to enhance the community’s capacity for natural resource management, rangeland health and One Health through participatory rangeland management (PRM) trainings and administration of the Institutional Capacity Assessment Tool (ICAT). This is to enhance rangeland productivity and reduce threats to livestock health through organized grazing, enhance livestock mobility and restore degraded rangelands. The tool comprises a set of indicators and levels that measure the performance, governance and resilience of rangeland management institutions and can help identify strengths and weaknesses, monitor changes and provide recommendations for improvement. This document reports the ICAT for HEAL rangeland sites in Ethiopia.
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    Rangeland Biophysical Resource Assessment in Southern Ethiopia: Baseline Study Report
    (Report, 2024-04-30) Eba, Bedasa; Ebro, Abule; Sircely, Jason A.; Ijo, A.; Tilahun, M.
    The International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), in partnership with African Medical and Research Foundation (Amref) and Veterinaires Sans Frontiere (VSF) Suisse, are jointly implementing HEAL (One Health for Humans, Environment, Animals and Livelihood in parts of Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia. ILRI is implementing the rangeland health component. Between December 2022 and January 2023, a baseline rangeland biophysical assessment was undertaken in Moyale and Filtu districts of the Somali Region and Moyale District of Borana Zone of Oromia Region in Ethiopia at 12 monitoring locations in four rangeland units: Wayama, Osobey-Golba, Dukusu and Arda Olla.
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    Uncertainty, pastoral knowledge and early warning: A review of drought management in the drylands, with insights from northern Kenya
    (Journal Article, 2024-06) Derbyshire, Samuel F.; Banerjee, Rupsha R.; Mohamed, Tahira Shariff; Roba, Guyo Malicha
    This article explores the recent history of early warning systems in Kenya, determining key features of the entangled political, technical and conceptual processes that prefigure contemporary drought management there. In doing so, it draws out wider implications regarding drought and anticipatory action across Africa’s drylands, considering the friction between the dynamics of disaster risk management that structure formal early warning systems and those that shape pastoralist engagements with the volatile and uncertain worlds they inhabit. Surveying recent literature on pastoralism’s unique relationship with uncertainty, and associated forms of networked, relational resilience, it reflects on some of the inherent limitations of current approaches to “local knowledge” in the humanitarian sphere. In doing so, it emphasises the need for new, creative approaches to early warning and anticipatory action, which are not merely established via the external synthesis of data but are rather oriented around local pastoralist drought preparation and mitigation strategies and comprise enough flexibility to adapt to a fast-shifting terrain of challenges and possibilities.
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    Sweetpotato vines for livestock feed
    (Poster, 2024-05-30) Lukuyu, Ben A.
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    Desmodium for livestock feed
    (Poster, 2024-05-30) Lukuyu, Ben A.; Gichuki, Leah
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    Silage making: Polythene bags and plastic drums method
    (Poster, 2024-05-30) Lukuyu, Ben A.; Gichuki, Leah
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    Haymaking
    (Poster, 2024-05-30) Lukuyu, Ben A.; Gichuki, Leah
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    Management and use of crop residues in Kenya
    (Poster, 2024-05-30) Lukuyu, Ben A.; Gichuki, Leah
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    Silage making: Above ground method
    (Poster, 2024-05-30) Lukuyu, Ben A.; Gichuki, Leah
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    Farmer-led livestock feed and feeding practices in Kenya: Dairy
    (Training Material, 2024-05-30) Lukuyu, Ben A.; Gichuki, Francis N.; Kiptoo, Emmaculate; Habermann, Birgit; DuttaGupta, Tanaya; Bullock, Renee
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    Science of Scaling Retreat Report
    (Report, 2024-03-19) Kihoro, Esther; Schut, Marc; McGuire, Erin; Leeuwis, Cees; MacMillan, Susan; Buono, Nicoletta; Woltering, Lennart; Dahl, Hauke; Gebreyes, Million; Jasada, Ijudai; Mugambi, Samuel; Gregerson, Katheryn; Ngissah, E.; Melaku, Dagmawi; Kalele, D.; Ewell, Hanna; Ronchi, Loraine; Dror, Iddo
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    Feed balances for ruminant livestock: Gridded estimates for data constrained regions
    (Journal Article, 2024) Fraval, Simon; Mutua, John Y.; Amole, Tunde A.; Tolera, Adugna; Feyisa, T.; Thornton, Philip K.; Notenbaert, An Maria Omer; Adesogan, A.; Balehegn, M.; Ayantunde, Augustine A.; Zampaligre, N.; Duncan, Alan J.
    Demand for animal source foods and livestock feed are forecast to increase across sub-Saharan Africa. In this context, there is a need to estimate the availability of livestock feed to support decision making at local, sub-national and national levels. In this study we assess feed balances for ruminant livestock in Ethiopia and Burkina Faso. Feed availability was estimated using remotely sensed products and detailed feed composition data. Feed requirements were estimated for maintenance, growth, lactation, gestation and locomotion using a data intensive model. Biomass available as animal feed was estimated to be 8.6 tonnes dry matter (DM) per hectare in the Ethiopian highlands and midlands, 3.2 tonnes DM per hectare in the Ethiopian lowlands, 2.9 tonnes DM per hectare in Burkina Faso’s Sudanian agro-ecological zone and 1.0 tonne DM per hectare in the Sahel. The energy requirements of lactating cows were estimated to be 62.1 Megajoules (MJ) per animal per day in the Ethiopian highlands and midlands, 62.7 MJ in the Ethiopian lowlands, 88.5 MJ in Burkina Faso’s Sudanian agro-ecological zone and 53.1 MJ per animal per day in the Sahel. Feed scarcity hotspots are most prominently located in the Ethiopian highlands and the Sahelian agro-ecological zone of Burkina Faso. Demand side policy and investment initiatives can address hotspots by influencing herd sizes, nutritional requirements and herd mobility. Supply side policy and investment initiatives can secure existing feed resources, develop new sources of feed and incentivise trade in feed resources. Improving feed balances will be of value to decision makers with the aims of optimising livestock productivity, minimising exposure to climatic shocks and minimising greenhouse gas emission intensity.
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    Barriers and enablers of crop varietal replacement and adoption among smallholder farmers as influenced by gender: the case of sweetpotato in Katakwi district, Uganda
    (Journal Article, 2024-04-18) Bayiyana, I.; Okello, J.J.; Mayanja, S.; Nakitto, M.; Namazzi, S.; Osaru, F.; Ojwang, S.O.; Shikuku, Kelvin Mashisia; Lagerkvist, Carl Johan
    Sweetpotato is climate smart crop, grown with limited external inputs (fertilisers, pesticides, less labour) making it an attractive crop for resource-constrained smallholder farmers. It is also a major cash and food crop for many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. However, adoption of the high yielding and nutritious improved varieties has been disappointingly low. This study uses qualitative methods to explore the barriers and enablers of farmer varietal replacement and adoption. Unlike the extant quantitative studies that identify the determinants of adoption, we delve deeper into understanding the reasons for or against the preference for specific varieties. We used a rich set of information collected via focus group discussions which explore why farmers prefer certain varieties over others and how they perceive the new improved varieties from the national breeding programs. Doing so enabled us to unravel specific traits or trait combinations that farmers seek and identify those that they perceive needing improvement. We find that the most preferred traits were ‘yield’ and ‘good taste’. Implying that the neglect of sensory attributes by breeders contributes to the low adoption of improved sweetpotato varieties. Moreover, we find that altruism among the respondents plays an important role in farmer use of, and sharing of information about improved sweetpotato varieties. Women and men farmers obtained most of their information from neighbours, NGOs and radios. For women, the most important source of planting materials doubled as their most important source of information. Thus, concerted efforts to minimise information constraints are essential for unravelling the adoption puzzle.
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    The role of heterogenous implementation on the uptake and long-term diffusion of agricultural insurance in a pastoral context
    (Journal Article, 2024-05-15) Jensen, Nathaniel D.; Teufel, Nils; Banerjee, Rupsha R.; Galgallo, Diba; Shikuku, Kelvin Mashisia
    To make a difference in lower-income countries, agricultural innovations must be adopted and ultimately diffused across diverse local environments. This study contributes to the ongoing debate about the factors limiting the spread of agricultural innovations by considering the role of heterogenous supply in determining observed demand for the Index-Based Livestock Insurance (IBLI) product, which is a commercial insurance product serving historically uninsured pastoralists in the Horn of Africa. Analysis of sales data from 2010 to 2020 in Ethiopia and Kenya shows that local conditions can reduce the likelihood of supply channels reaching prospective clients, effectively excluding them from accessing insurance, while other factors can work towards increasing supply of insurance while also decreasing demand for it. Surveys collected from insurance sales agents reveals considerable heterogeneity in their ability to and effort in suppling IBLI. Discussions with IBLI’s providers confirms the role of supply constraints in observed demand; the firms consistently point towards the cost of last-mile extension and sales as their largest challenge to increasing sales, and emphasize that it is cost-prohibitive to provide equal access to well-trained insurance agents across the areas that they operate. These findings suggest that current investments aimed at increasing insurance coverage by increasing demand, for example through improved product design or by subsidizing premiums, should be accompanied by investments in developing more cost-effective marketing and distribution processes so that demand can be acted upon. On a broader level, the results highlight a need to consider non-random and incomplete supply as a factor when examining observed uptake of agricultural innovations.
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    Institutional Capacity Assessment Report for North Horr, Balesa and Galasa Rangeland Units, North Horr Subcounty, Marsabit County
    (Report, 2024-04) Guyo, Isacko
    The International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), in partnership with African Medical and Research Foundation (Amref) and Veterinaires Sans Frontiere (VSF) Suisse, are jointly implementing HEAL Projects in parts of Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia. In Marsabit County, the HEAL project is being implemented under OHUs in three rangeland units: North Horr, Balesa and Galasa. ILRI is implementing the rangeland health component. The target is to enhance the community’s capacity for natural resource management, rangeland health and One Health through participatory rangeland management (PRM) trainings and administration of the Institutional Capacity Assessment Tool (ICAT). This is to enhance rangeland productivity and reduce threats to livestock health through organized grazing, enhance livestock mobility and restore degraded rangelands. The tool comprises a set of indicators and levels that measure the performance, governance and resilience of rangeland management institutions and can help identify strengths and weaknesses, monitor changes and provide recommendations for improvement. This document reports the ICAT for HEAL rangelands sites in North Horr, Kenya.
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    Institutional Capacity Assessment Report for Biliqo, Malkagalla and Gafarsa Rangeland Units, Isiolo County
    (Report, 2024-04) Guyo, Isacko
    The International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), in partnership with African Medical and Research Foundation (Amref) and Veterinaires Sans Frontiere (VSF) Suisse, are jointly implementing HEAL Projects in parts of Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia. In Marsabit County, the HEAL project is being implemented under OHUs in three rangeland units: North Horr, Balesa and Galasa. ILRI is implementing the rangeland health component. The target is to enhance the community’s capacity for natural resource management, rangeland health and One Health through participatory rangeland management (PRM) trainings and administration of the Institutional Capacity Assessment Tool (ICAT). This is to enhance rangeland productivity and reduce threats to livestock health through organized grazing, enhance livestock mobility and restore degraded rangelands. The tool comprises a set of indicators and levels that measure the performance, governance and resilience of rangeland management institutions and can help identify strengths and weaknesses, monitor changes and provide recommendations for improvement. This document reports the ICAT for HEAL rangeland sites in Isiolo county, Kenya.
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    Mixed Farming Systems (MFS) Initiative – Experience from Ethiopia
    (Presentation, 2024-04-25) Whitbread, Anthony M.; Mekonnen, Kindu; Gebreyes, Million; Seifu, Haimanot